“Persons” and “Parties” – litigation terms:

     This page is continued from Intro >>>> Jurisdiction >>>> Personal Jurisdiction:


party – a natural person or artificial person  interested in the outcome of litigation, who may or may not be a party of record, &/or a person who has engaged in a transaction.

  • natural person – a human being.
  • artificial Person – has rights but not privileges or immunities, and may be held liable. (i.e. – corporations, governmental bodies). — aka fictitious person; juristic person; juridical person; legal person; moral person.

litigant – the plaintiff or defendant in a court action.

Definitions for
Types of Litigants on the Offense:

plaintiff – a party who brings a civil suit in a court of law.

complainant – a person who files a formal accusation of a crime or a plaintiff in a civil suit (court of equity).

petitioner – a party who presents a petition to a court or other official body, especially when seeking relief.

appellant – a party who appeals a lower court’s decision, usually seeking reversal of that decision.

Definitions for
Types of Litigants on the Defense:

defendant – a person sued in a civil proceeding or accused in a criminal proceeding.

respondant – the party against whom an appeal is taken to a higher court; the appellee or the defendant in a suit in equity.

third-party defendant – a party brought into a lawsuit by the original defendant.

appellee – a party against whom an appeal is taken from a lower court to a higher court & whose role is to respond to that appeal.


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     All short descriptions of legal terms found throughout this page were compiled using


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